According to the results of a new study, use of a vaginal probiotic called LACTIN-V may decrease the rates of recurrent urinary tract infections among women. Urinary tract infections (UTIs), a common problem in women, cost an estimated $2.5 billion per year to treat in the United States. The infections recur frequently in approximately 2 to 3 percent of all women. Researchers believe depletion of a certain bacteria in the vagina may be associated with recurrent UTIs, meaning that replenishing the bacteria may be beneficial. To test the theory, researchers administered either LACTIN-V or a placebo once a week to young women with a history of UTIs over a period of 10 weeks. The results indicated that LACTIN-V may significantly reduce the rate of UTIs in women who are prone to infection. Researchers hope that someday the treatment may replace long-term antimicrobial preventative treatments. The study was published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.